In recent years, more and more filtration technology has emerged and there are now several standardized water treatment systems for your home. Each of them serves a unique purpose and you should carefully consider the different ways in which they will benefit you. The system that you install will be based on what it is exactly that you removing from your water supply.
Water softeners are among the more traditional solutions to whole home filtration. They involve an ion exchange process which reduces the presence of hard minerals in your water supply (e.g., magnesium and calcium). The minerals are replaced by sodium ions, which render your water safe and potable.
UV purification involves the use of ultraviolet light to disinfect your water supply. It effectively kills off and eradicates any harmful bacteria in your water as it passes through the apparatus. UV disinfection will easily eliminate over 99.9% of living elements and micro-organisms.
Reverse Osmosis (RO) filtration systems are becoming an increasingly popular method of water purification. What they do is they reverse the natural flow of water to dilute it and pass it through a semi-permeable membrane. RO systems also include pre- and post-filters along the membrane. The permeated water is what dispenses from your plumbing fixtures and the filtration system will discard all of the wastewater/brine.
Distillation is a method of purification where contaminants are removed by heating your water supply until it boils so that it vaporizes and condenses. During the process, the contaminating elements are left behind as the vapor forms into a liquid again. Distillation is an effective approach to removing heavy metals from your water supply. Other elements that easily convert into gas include volatile organic compounds.